Q1.Was ist die Garantiezeit für Sinowon-Produkte, die auf den internationalen Markt exportiert werden?

Answer: in China, we supply 12-month as warranty time for the customers, the date time is started to count from the machine installed and acceptance checked. As for instruments exported to international market, it is 15-month for warranty time, but it is started to count from the shipping time, the shipping time will be declared and found on the bill of loading or airways.

Q2.Wer hat Rockwell Testverfahren für die Materialprüfung erfunden?

Answer: It is acceptable that Mr. Hugh M. Rockwell (1890–1957) and Mr. Stanley P. Rockwell (1886–1940) from Connecticut in the United States co-invented the "Rockwell hardness tester," a differential-depth machine. They applied for a patent on July 15, 1914.[4] The requirement for this tester was to quickly determine the effects of heat treatment on steel bearing races. The application was subsequently approved on February 11, 1919, and holds U.S. Patent 1,294,171.

Q3Was ist der Unterschied zwischen Rockwell und Superficial Rockwell?

A fundamental distinction is made between two types of Rockwell method: Regular Rockwell (or Rockwell) and Superficial Rockwell (or Super Rockwell):

1. Rockwell: The perforce (or p reload) is always 10 kgf, while the total test force (also referred to as main force or load) can vary between 60, 100, or 150 kgf.
2. Super Rockwell: The perforce is 3 Kgf, while the main force can vary between 15, 30, or 45 Kgf.

Prüfverfahren (Testverfahren) Rockwell. Super Rockwell
Vorspannung Kraft 10kgf 10kgf 10kgf 3kgf 3kgf 3kgf
Wichtigste Kraft 150kgf 100kgf 60kgf 45kgf 30kgf 15kgf

Die von Super Rockwell ermittelten Härtewerte können in Rockwell-Werte umgewandelt werden und umgekehrt.Die Superficial Rockwell Methode wurde in den USA erfunden, wo ihre Verwendung deutlich häufiger ist als in Europa.Es eignet sich besonders für die Härteprüfung dünner Bauteile und Schichten oder mit Proben, deren berechneter Härtewert außerhalb der regulären Rockwell-Skala liegt.

Rockwell and Superficial hardness testing shall be performed in accordance with the latest revision of ASTM E18.

There are two general classifications of the Rockwell test: the Rockwell hardness and the Rockwell superficial hardness test. In the Rockwell hardness test the preliminary test force is 10 kgf. Total test forces are 60 kgf, 100 kgf and 150 kgf. In the Rockwell superficial hardness test, the preliminary test force is 3 kgf and total test forces are 15 kgf, 30 kgf, 45 kgf. The indenter of either test shall be of spheroconical or spherical configuration The standard indenters are the diamond spheroconical and tungsten carbide ball indenters' 1/16, 1/8, 1/4, 1/2 inch in diameter. Annex 3 or A3. STANDARDIZATION OF ROCKWELL INDENTERS, covers the requirements of indenters to be used. The dust, dirt, grease and scale shall not be allowed to accumulate on the indenter as this will affect the test. Anvils used for indention’s must be suitable for specimen. Cylindrical pieces shall be tested with a V-grooved anvil Flat pieces shall be tested on a flat anvil, whose plane is perpendicular to the axis of the indenter. The anvils shall be clean and smooth and free from pits, scratches, dust, dirt and grease. The anvil and indenter shall be set properly by running two tests not used in calculations.

The test specimens shall be clean and prepared in a way that alteration of the surface hardness is minimized. Flat specimens' surfaces should be flat and parallel to indenter and anvil. The thickness of the test piece or of the layer under test should be as dictated in Table 7, 8, 9, and 10 of ASTM E18. The general rule, is the thickness should be 10 times the depth of the indenter. For tests on convex cylindrical surfaces the corrections given in Tables 11, 12, 13, and 14 of ASTM E18 shall be applied.

Place the specimen on the proper anvil and bring the indenter in contact with specimen until the machine engages the minor load. This indicates machine is ready for reading and will give automatic readout. There should be a minimum 3 readings per sample and 4 readings for bolt testing. Each reading should be a distance of three times the diameter of the indenter apart. Take an average of the readings for the final result. If technician believes that a reading is not representative of material an additional 3 readings can be used to replace the one.

Before each test using a different scale, start of a day, or change of indenter the machine will be calibrated using NIST traceable hardness blocks. This calibration will be logged and recorded using hardness block limits with an average of three readings for each test block.   After testing the final report will include Rockwell hardness number, scale used, and readings to nearest the whole number by rounding in accordance with ASTM E29.

Q4: Was ist die Anwendung von Rockwell und Oberflächliche Härteprüfung?

Bei Rockwell-Tests wird die Härte durch Messung der komparativen Tiefe von zwei sorgfältig kontrollierten Einrückungen bestimmt, die eine über die andere überlagert.

First a Minor Load (one of a lesser force) is applied to a steel ball or sphere—conical diamond perpetrator. Then, while the Minor Load is still being applied, a Major Load (one of greater force) is applied at a precisely controlled rate. The Major Load is removed and the hardness determination is displayed.

The hardness determination obtained represents the additional depth to which the Major Load has indented the test specimen beyond the initial indentation of the application of the Minor Load. The displayed indication is proportionally inverse, e.g. the higher the displayed determination of hardness, the shallower the indentations, therefore the harder the material.

In the regular (R) Rockwell scale, the Minor Load is is 10 kgf and the Major Load may be 60, 100, or 150 kgf. In the superficial scale (S), the Minor Load is 3 kgf and the Major Load may be 15, 30, or 45 kgf.

To ensure accuracy and consistency, the Major Load is under precise control and the Penetrate are manufactured to specific tolerances. Each point of hardness on the regular (R) scale is 0.00008 inch and 0.00004 inch on the superficial (S) scale, making the need for precise control of the applied forces and precision manufacture of the Penetrate readily apparent.

Rockwell Oberflächliche Waagen

Symbol skalieren Penetrate
Großlast (Kleinlast) Typische Anwendung
A Konus Diamant 60 kgf (10 kgf) Verschiedenes 183; Wolfram Hartmetalls im Kombi; dünner Stahl im Vergleich zu 1833; flacher gehärteter Stahl
B Ball 1/16 100 kgf (10 kgf) Kombi-Legierungen (Kombi-Legierungen), Kombi-Legierungen, Kombi-Legierungen, Kombi-Legierungen, Kombi-
C Konus Diamant 150 kgf (10 kgf) Verschiedenes: Stahl in der Mitte; Stahl in der Mitte; Hartguss in der Mitte; leicht verformbares Eisen in der Mitte der Mitte; Stahl in der Mitte
D Konus Diamant 100 kgf (10 kgf) Verschiedenes: dünnstählernes Stahl (ohne Schnitt 1833); mittelgehärtetes Stahl ohne Querschnitt; perlitisches, verformbares Eisen
E Ball 1/8 100 kgf (10 kgf) Mehrschichte183; Gusseisen in der Form von Einzelteilen; Aluminiumlegierungen in der Luft (in der Luft)
F Ball 1/16 60 kgf (10 kgf) Deck183; geglühten Kupferlegierungen in der Nähe von 1833; dünnes Weichblech
G Ball 1/16 150 kgf (10 kgf) Kombi-183; Phosphor-Bronze in der Mitte; Beryllium in der Mitte; Cooper in der Mitte; formbares Eisen (G92+ wird Penetrator beschädigen)
H Ball 1/8 60 kgf (10 kgf) Kombium 183Zink im Kombibereich 183Blei im Kombibereich; Aluminium
K Ball 1/8 150 kgf (10 kgf) (siehe ASTM D7851)Verwenden Sie die kleinste Kugel und die höchste Kraft, die nicht "Amboss" bewirkt, und verwenden Sie die kleinste Kugel und die höchste Kraft,
L Ball 1/4 60 kgf (10 kgf)
M Ball 1/4 100 kgf (10 kgf)
P Ball 1/4 150 kgf (10 kgf)
R Ball 1/2 60 kgf (10 kgf)
S Ball 1/2 100 kgf (10 kgf)
V Ball 1/2 150 kgf (10 kgf)

ASTM D785 (Vol. 08.01) Standard Test Method for Rockwell Hardness of Plastics and Electrical Isoliering Materials

Rockwell Oberflächliche Waagen

Symbol skalieren Penetrate
Großlast (Kleinlast) Typische Anwendung
15N Konus Diamant 15 kgf (3 kgf) Oberflächliche Skala ist ideal für die Prüfung von Materialien, die nicht über ausreichende Breite oder Dicke, um auf der Regelmässigen (R) Rockwell Härteskala geprüft werden,Diese sind in der Regel: »Non-Shadow«; sehr dünnes Blech « « (in der Regel «-Blech « (in der Regel »»», in der Regel »»Non-Shadow«; Blech mit Bandblech » (in der Regel »») in der Mitte des Mittelfeldes », in der Mitte der Mitte des Mittelfeldes, in der Mitte der Mitte des Mittelfeldes, in der Mitte des Mittelfeldes, in der Mitte.
30N Konus Diamant 30 kgf (3 kgf)
45N Konus Diamant 45 kgf (3 kgf)
15T Ball 1/16 15 kgf (3 kgf)
30T Ball 1/16 30 kgf (3 kgf)
45T Ball 1/16 45 kgf (3 kgf)
15W Ball 1/8 15 kgf (3 kgf)
30W Ball 1/8 30 kgf (3 kgf)
45W Ball 1/8 45 kgf (3 kgf)
15X Ball 1/4 15 kgf (3 kgf)
30X Ball 1/4 30 kgf (3 kgf)
45X Ball 1/4 45 kgf (3 kgf)
15Y Ball 1/2 15 kgf (3 kgf)
30Y Ball 1/2 30 kgf (3 kgf)
45Y Ball 1/2 45 kgf (3 kgf)

Waagen mit Hartmetall

Scale C (Carbid) Tester werden für die Prüfung von Wolfram Hartmetalls in der Rockwell A Skala verwendet, wo Toleranzen von -177; 0.20 eines Rockwell-Härtepunkt erforderlich sind.Ein speziell ausgewählter "A" Brale Penetrator wird verwendet, um die Härte von Wolfram Karbide in Übereinstimmung mit ASTM B 294 und der Cententented Carbide Producer's Association (CCPA) zu messen.

In addition to the 60 kgf Major Load required for carbide A Scale testing, the Scale C testers also include 100 and 150 kgf capabilities.